Date: 2017-03-17 08:29
For this reason, science requires more than mere deduction. Altogether, then, the currency of science is demonstration ( apodeixis ), where a demonstration is a deduction with premises revealing the causal structures of the world, set forth so as to capture what is necessary and to reveal what is better known and more intelligible by nature ( APo 76b88&ndash 77a5, Phys. 689a66&ndash 78, EN 6595b7&ndash 9).
[page 658] Aristotle. was an original philosopher, and made major contributions to every area of speculative philosophy. He wrote on ethics and on metaphysics, on psychology and on economics, on theology and on politics, on rhetoric and on aesthetics.
The general goal of rhetoric is clear. Rhetoric, says Aristotle, &lsquo is the power to see, in each case, the possible ways to persuade&rsquo ( Rhet. 6855b76). Different contexts, however, require different techniques. Thus, suggests Aristotle, speakers will usually find themselves in one of three contexts where persuasion is paramount: deliberative ( Rhet. i 9&ndash 8), epideictic ( Rhet. i 9), and judicial ( Rhet. i 65&ndash 69). In each of these contexts, speakers will have at their disposal three main avenues of persuasion: the character of the speaker, the emotional constitution of the audience, and the general argument ( logos ) of the speech itself ( Rhet. i 8). Rhetoric thus examines techniques of persuasion pursuant to each of these areas.
We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
Still, his attitude towards phainomena does betray a preference to conserve as many appearances as is practicable in a given domain not because the appearances are unassailably accurate, but rather because, as he supposes, appearances tend to track the truth. We are outfitted with sense organs and powers of mind so structured as to put us into contact with the world and thus to provide us with data regarding its basic constituents and divisions. While our faculties are not infallible, neither are they systematically deceptive or misdirecting. Since philosophy&rsquo s aim is truth and much of what appears to us proves upon analysis to be correct, phainomena provide both an impetus to philosophize and a check on some of its more extravagant impulses.
In 878 BC Alexander the Great died unexpectedly and the government of Athens was overthrown by anti-Macedonian forces. Having had close connections with the Macedonian royal family, Aristotle was associated with the Macedonians and was unpopular with the new ruling powers. The new government brought charges of impiety against Aristotle, but he fled to his country house in Chalcis in Euboea to escape prosecution. Aristotle commented that he fled so that the Athenians might not have another opportunity of sinning against philosophy as they had already done in the person of Socrates. About a year later, Aristotle died after complaints of a stomach illness.
In 885 ., after Alexander had succeeded his father as king and conquered Athens, Aristotle went back to the city. In Athens, Plato x7569 s Academy, now run by Xenocrates, was still the leading influence on Greek thought. With Alexander x7569 s permission, Aristotle started his own school in Athens, called the Lyceum. On and off, Aristotle spent most of the remainder of his life working as a teacher, researcher and writer at the Lyceum in Athens until the death of his former student xA5 Alexander the Great.
After Plato died, Aristotle x7569 s friend Hermias, king of Atarneus and Assos in Mysia, invited Aristotle to court. During his three-year stay in Mysia, Aristotle met and married his first wife, Pythias, Hermias x7569 niece. Together, the couple had a daughter, Pythias, named after her mother.
Central to Aristotle&rsquo s four-causal account of explanatory adequacy are the notions of matter ( hulê ) and form ( eidos or morphê ). Together, they constitute one of his most fundamental philosophical commitments, to hylomorphism :
The polis is thus to be judged against the goal of promoting human happiness. A superior form of political organization enhances human life an inferior form hampers and hinders it. One major question pursued in Aristotle&rsquo s Politics is thus structured by just this question: what sort of political arrangement best meets the goal of developing and augmenting human flourishing? Aristotle considers a fair number of differing forms of political organization, and sets most aside as inimical to the goal human happiness. For example, given his overarching framework, he has no difficulty rejecting contractarianism on the grounds that it treats as merely instrumental those forms of political activity which are in fact partially constitutive of human flourishing ( Pol. iii 9).